Essay Lesson 50: Two diseases and two pest that cacao trees have

The first disese is the witches broom which the fungus attacks the tissue causing the cacao tree to produce some branches the have nofruit of seeds. The second is the frosty opd rot which is when the fungus infects only actively growing tissue especially the young branches, it take about 1-3 mouths to see the appearance which is a white fungal mat on the surface of the pod.

The first pest is the mirids which pierce the surface of coca stems, branches, and pods killing the penetrated host cells and produce unsightly necrotic lesions. Mirids eating shoots often result in death in branches. The secound pest is the cocoa pod borer also non as (CPB) which atack both young and mature cocoa pods, infestation of young pods end in heavy loses because the quantity and quality of the cocoa beans become seriously affected.


Chicago Peace rose

the Chicago peace

The chicago peace rose is a beautiful golden pink color. The chicago peace is a multi colored rose that needs a lot of sunlight to grow but does well where the winters are frigid . This rose is a hybrid tea rose and is very glossy.

Bronze star

the bronze star/Rosa ‘Wezaprt’

The bronze star is also know as the Rosa ‘Wezaprt’ a hybrid tea rose and it has a Strong, spicy fragrance . The bronze star requires full sunlight.the bronze star is an apricot color and the foliage is medium green. 

Sunset horizon

sunset horizon

The sunset horizon is a fiery multicolored red and orange rose and is a is about 3-4 in. and requires full sunlight.

How to take care of roses

Soil should be kept evenly moist throughout the growing season. The amount and frequency of watering will depend on your soil type and climate.The best way to prevent rose diseases is to choose disease-resistant varieties.Roses will last the longest when they are cut immediately after the bud stage, when the petals are starting to open.Powdery mildew typically appears during the summer, especially when the days are hot and dry and the nights are cool and wet. The tell-tale signs include leaves that curl and twist and the development of a white, powdery down on the leaves. To avoid powdery mildew, water plants at ground level in the morning, Pruning a rose bush to allow air to circulate through the foliage also helps prevent this powdery growth.

Essay Lesson 40: Botany week 2

House plants

African violets also known as a saintpaulia. African violets bloom easily and can grow under artificial light. Chrysanthemums also known as mums originated from East Asia, there are  about 40 species of mums. The passion flower grows on vines and needs sunlight. Passion flower refers to Jesus Christ’s passion week. Poinsettias are great house plants but they need a warm environment and moist soil. The star on poinsettias symbolizes the star of bethleham. 

Interior environment

 Homes are cooler than natural plant environments and most pots prevent roots from spreading. Indoor plants may get over watered or not watered enough.Most plants need fertilizer and need darkness at night.

Plant life cycles

There are three different life cycles for plants, the first is annuels which means they live for only one year. The second is biennials which means they live for 2 years and the last is perennials which means they live for more than 2 years.

Essay Lesson 35: Botany week 1

There are several sub-disciplines within aboutany the first is agronomy which is farming the second is horticulture which is using plants for commercial purposes the third is floriculture which is growing flowers the fourth is forestry which is using forests .Then there is plant pathology  which is plant diseases ,plant taxonomy which is plant classification , and lastly paleobotany which is the study of old plants. Plants have many benefits they provide shelter ,paper, healthy food, oxygen, protect soil, and provide shade 

Primary plant categories

Seed plants are plants that produce seeds.Seed plants are either Gymnosperms or Angiosperms. Gymnosperms are a non flowering plant while on the other hand Angiosperms are. An example of Gymnosperms are evergreen trees, an example of Angiosperms are apple trees or oak trees. Another primary plant are the ferns; they have lacy green leaves that curl up. Ferns grow in moist forest areas. Then there is mosses, mosses are small plants that grow in moist areas like the forest floor. Then there are club mosses that have needle-like leaves. They live in moist areas like mosses  and they are vascular which means they have veins. And lastly the horsetails, they have jointed hollow stems and a cone shaped region on the top.

Plant parts

Roots typically are below ground unless they are aerial roots. All roots have little hairs that help absorb the water.Stems are above ground and support the plant. Leaves absorb and turn chemical energy into  oxygen they store water and food . The flower attracts the most attention and develops into fruit and seeds . fruit comes from a flowering tissue and enables the plant  to spread seeds . seeds contain there parts the seed coat the embryo and the nutrient supply .


There are 2 types of photosynthesis the first is oxygenic and the other is anoxygenic. Oxygenic means the plant breathes in carbon dioxide and exhales oxygen. Anoxyganic means it inhales carbon but does not exhale oxygen.

Lesson 30 :Fossiles,The Grand Canyon, and Rock Layers


 Fossil means something dug up, a fossil was an animal  that was formerly living but then got buried suddenly. Paleontologists are people who study fossils, organisms harden into fossils under the right circumstances. Fossils can occur quickly in flood like example of a fossil is petrified wood it is fossilised by minerals replacing the tissue of the wood.

The grand canyon

the Grand Canyon

Since no human witnessed the formation of the grand canyon no one can prove their theory. Today radioactive dating is used to assign relative dates to start layers in the canyons. Radioactive dating is when elements like carbon decay or lose options . If carbon has too many neutrons it will become unstable, unstable atoms will lose particles and become stable. Scientists can observe the time required for half of the unstable atoms to become stable; this is called half-life. Scientists know the present decay of an individual atom like carbon.the decay rate functions like a stopwatch ticking.

Transcontinental rock layers

There are 6 mega sequences of rock layers; all six are visible in the grand canyon. All of these layers are layered out through north america . these layers were discovered about 50 years ago. 

Essay Lesson 25 : Mountains Glaciers and Deserts

There are lots of mountain ranges around the world, one of them is the ural Mountains . The Ural mountain is 1,550 ft. long and 20-90 miles wide. The Ural mountain range is the boundary between Europe and Asia.


Oragany is the creation of mountains which is built from the converging plate zone. There are three of these convergence the first is the ocean continent convergence. An example of this is the nazca plate going under the south american plate. The second is the arc-continent convergence this is when an island collides into a continental plate. The last on is the continent- continent convergence this is when two continents collide and the folded crust gets pushed in.


Glaciers can erode through mountains it is one of the primary ways mountains and land formations are eroded. Glaciers are formed by snow that is compacted together. Glaciers leave back sediment once it is melted.


Deserts can be hot and cold it just depends on whether it got 24 centimeters of water per year. Deserts tend to form 30 derges south and north of the equator this is because air et compressed and sucks up the moisture. That is why we have dry regions such as the sarharh desert.and oolong the equator human air drops and expand then gets cooler and persipitates  more. Deserts tend to have dry stream beds.

Essay Lesson 11: Earth’s Crust

The earth’s crust is divided into two crusts one being the continental crust and the other being the oceanic crust.The continental crust is 18.6-31 miles miles thick, and it is primarily composed of felsic rock.The primary rock found on the earth’s crust is the granite and igneous rock.Granite is an example of igneous rock once it cools.Then there is oceanic crust which is 4.3 miles thick and is primarily composed of mafic rock. Mafic rock contains magnesium and iron.There is basalt and gabbro rocks, basalt is a volcanic rock it comes through volcanoes.Even though the oceanic crust is thinner it is more dense.No machine has ever been able to drill a hole through the earth crust.One Russian group drilled at the Kola Super deep Borehole and the made it 40,230 ft below the surface which is the deepest hole there has ever been.  

Essay Lesson 20: Volcano’s

the ring of fire

There are major characteristics that can tell a volcano from a mountain. Volcanoes have a vent that lends to the hot spot or magma chamber.There are different types of volcanoes, the first is the shield volcano. Shield volcanoes will gradually slope up . shield volcanoes tend to be non violent in their eruptions because it has fluid like lava. The shield volcanoes are primarily located near the hawian emperor seamount chain area. Another type of volcano is composite volcanoes. Composite volcanoes erupt violently; these are probably the most famous types of volcanoes. They erupt very violently because of its thick lava. They are primarily located along the circum pacif belt/the ring of fire. And then there are cinder cone volcanoes; these are smaller than most volcanoes; they are located on shield volcanoes. And the last volcano type is lava domes. And they erupt extremely violently because they have very patsey lava. And they often form in composite volcano craters.

Essay Lesson 15 : Earth’s interior

The earth’s  crust, mantle, and core 

The earth’s crust is divided into two crusts one being the continental crust and the other being the oceanic crust.The primary rock found on the earth’s crust is the granite and igneous rock.The continental crust is 18.6-31 miles miles thick, and it is primarily composed of felsic rock.Then there is oceanic crust which is 4.3 miles thick and is primarily composed of mafic rock.Mafic rock contains magnesium and iron.even though the oceanic crust is thinner it is more dense.No machine has ever been able to drill a hole through the earth crust.

The earth’s mantle is mostly solid there are areas in the mantle that has semi melted rock also none as magma chambers and the upper mantle possible consists of ultramafic rock which is  very dense igneous rock the crust and the upper mantle are the lithosphere which is the earth’s plates that move on the earths the lower layer  under the lithosphere is the asthenosphere scientists believe this is a slushy area some of the rock is crystals and the others are liquid  

The earth’s core seismic waves do not appear on the other side of the earth the shadow zone. S waves are the epicenter of an earthquake .Seismologists know that the S waves don’t go through the center of the earth so there is a shadow zone where the seismologist don’t see the occurrence of the s waves. P waves go in other directions like S waves but they start going through the core then start refracting and bending and then start to bend. Even though there are still shadow zones . It is a scientific fact that the core is more dense and is metal.

Earth’s  magnetic shield

The north pole is magnetic south and magnetic north is the south pole. The reason a magnet needle points to the north pole/magnetic south is because the earth is a giant magnet. With magnets opposites attract but if you put both north sides together they will repeal the reason is because the magnetic force that is generated is going the same direction so they are repelled. A compass has a lightweight magnet inside that points to the earths north pole.The magnet picks up the earth’s magnetic field . The earth’s tilt is 11.5 degrees because North is actually 11.5 degrees from south  

Earth’s floor

Evidence suggests that the earth’s plates have moved a lot since the begging of time. These earth plates move from 0.5 to 6in per year. There are ocean floor ridges that indicate that on both sides of the earth’s floor are moving. As the seafloor is expanding there are magma chambers that create more rocks once it cools but it shrinks along the seafloor then it goes under the continental plate and creates mountains. The plate goes down and starts to melt and it goes through the mantle and starts all over again 


An earthquake is a movement alongside boundaries or faults. A fault is a break between rocks. An earthquake is a sudden occurrence of released energy that has been stored. Earthquakes normally occur deep inside the earth sometimes 435 miles deep mostly near the crust. There are three different faults the first is a strike slip fault 2 rocks grind past each other . The second is a normal fault where 1 rock slides down into the ocean ridge. The third is reverse fault where two rock collide into each other.