This week we talked about hazardous weather. There are 40,000 thunderstorms a day world wide. The life cycle of a thunderstorm has 3 parts . The first is the towering cumulus stage then the maturing stage then the dissipating stage.
A tornado consists of moist air and is visible because of these water droplets. Some tornadoes last from a few seconds to minutes but most stop within 10 minutes. A tornado will gradually lose intensity. Most small tornados do a lot of damage while most big tornados will do very light damage.
Hurricanes can only develop were the sea temperature is 26 degrees and big hurricanes develop in 28 degrees. Hurricanes need wave patterns or thunderstorms to develop. Hurricanes can only develop between 8 and 20 degrees north of the equator
This week we talked about cloud formations. Clouds provide precipitation for plants and keeps us warm by holding in the heat. Condensing water vapor forms clouds. Clouds make up is partially water but there is dirt in the air that these particles form around. Cool air cannot contain as much water vapor as warm air. Some clouds change stages. A few cloud stages are:
This week We talked about polar jets and subtropical Jets. Polar Jets are more powerful but are lower in the air they are only 23-39,000 feet above ground. Subtropical Jets have less power but are higher in the air then polar Jets ,they fly between 33-52,000 feet in the air. The air that is in jet streams can travel over 200 miles per hour. They are used to forecast weather.There are several main types of climate. A few of them are the tropical climate which is above 64 degrees all year round. Another is the dry climate, this climate is from 68 to 90 degrees all year long.
This week we talked about wind. When air is moving vertically, it’s called an updraft. Air motion is caused by 3 forces. The first force is the pressure Granite Force also known as PGF. This is when high pressure areas force the air into low pressure areas. The second force is the Coriolis Force this is when the rotation of the Earth causes air to turn. In the Northern hemisphere hurricanes spin in one direction and in the southern hemisphere they spin in the opposite direction. And last but not least the third force is friction which slows the flow of wind.
This week we talked about the atmosphere. There are a few layers of the atmosphere and they are classified by the temperature. The lowest layer is the troposphere which is 10 miles high at the equator and 4 miles high at the poles. As temperature decreases the altitude increases. The second layer is the stratosphere. This layer begins 6-8 miles above sea level and ends 31-34 miles above sea level. Unlike the troposphere in the stratosphere as the temperature increases the altitude increases. Jet powered airplanes can fly here but not propeller powered. The third layer is the mesosphere. This layer starts 31 miles above sea level and ends 50-53 miles above sea level. The average temperature is -120 degrees .This level is too high for jet powered airplanes and is too low for satellites. The fourth layer is the thermosphere. This layer starts 50 miles above sea level and ends 312-620 miles above sea level.
This week is my last week doing conservation i will be starting meteorology
In this section of science I learned that only 2.5% of the earth’s water is freshwater. 70%of freshwater is groundwater and 1% is surface water.as fresh water demands increase, groundwater decreases. Pumping groundwater and severe droughts affect the aquifer water levels. Desalination is one process used for distillation. First you evaporate the water which leaves behind the salt and then you condensate it and collect it. Then we talked about irrigation, irrigation is the process of conserving water. Irrigation is the artificial supply to arid and semiarid regions. There are many types of irrigation like the drip irrigation system. Drip irrigation is when water goes through pipes and filters to get the sand out and then goes through different pipes that drip water constantly down at the plants roots
Pollution is the biggest threat to animal and human kind. When humans litter or poor oil into the water that can kill all different types of life from whales to cyanobacteria. Most people know that cyanobacteria is a small organism that lives in water that generates over 50% of our oxygen. Then if cyanobacteria dies then we don’t have enough oxygen so we’ll die . So I feel that if humans didn’t litter or pour oil into water there would be cleaner drinking water and less animals going extinct.
Instead of killing animals that look scary and intimidating to human life we should let them be animals meaning let them live in their habitat not in the zoo ,cages ,the circus or in houses. I get that we can have kittens and small dogs but not animals like tigers and lions and wolves or even reptiles. Those that do have indoor cats and dogs should let their dogs and cats go outside and come inside as they wish.
This week I learned about soil erosion signs and consequences. Some soil erosion signs are:
Rilles,channels and gullies
Caved in slops and stream banks
Soil conversion is used to limit the amount of surface runoff.There are a lot of ways to conserve soil like contour plants. Contour planting is when farmers plow the land vertically along the hill instead of horizontally. Sometimes with contour planting you use bunding. Bunding is when you place rocks along the lines of the contour rows.
This week we talked about how water and soil interact. The water cycle is the movement of water around the earth .Water infiltration is when you have water soaking into the soil and eventually will flow through the soil to the water level.
erosion is when water or wind move soil and causes land slides. there are lots of different types of water erosions:
This week we talked about soil. Soil is the crust of the earth layers. Soil is made from minerals and contains gases and liquids. organic soil contains the most minerals.Topsoil or surface soil contains the most nutrients because there is a lot of organic matter such as animal manure. The layer under the topsoil is the subsoil ,this layer contains clay and minerals. The Substratum layer is a mixture between soil and rock. Then the last layer is bedrock this layer contains lots of big rock and there isn’t any minerals in this layer.