Garden Science Week 3

This week I had 2 projects. The first project was a self-watering potted plant. The second project is a water garden.

Things you have to consider with your soil is that your soil must contain organic matter to provide minerals for all of your plants.The pH level is very important for your plant’s, a good soil pH level is about 6-6.5.

A couple things to remember when composting is to always keep your compost pile moist during warmer months, and then flip the compost every once in-awhile.  


Essay lesson 10: Earth Materials

Earth is made up of rocks and rocks are made from minerals. Those minerals are made up of elements. Some of these minerals have two or more elements but some minerals only have one.


 Minerals must naturally occur; it has to be earth made to be a mineral. They are not real if a scientist makes it. Minerals are inorganic which means they are dead. Minerals are crystalline  which means their atoms are formed together to make a 3D form. Minerals are solid which means they stay stable at room temperature. Many minerals have only two elements like salt .


Mining  can be very dangerous like in 2010  lots of people got stuck in a mine but they all got out safely . There are three different mining methods: the first is underground mining.underground mining when they mine precious metals like gold ,silver and platinum. underground mining is very expensive so they have to get great value. Surface mining is the second major type of mining; it is less expensive and often base metals and minerals can be extracted from the surface. The third is placer mining often metals can be separated from sediment in rivers  or streams .There is a tool called the slooce trap that saves valuable  material and separates it from sediment .

Lesson 45 of Science

In the event that I were to build a robot, I would build it so that it could help me with chores. First I would start off with photocell resistors which will help the robot notice change in the environment. The robot will either turn or hold something or even stop, depending on how you want it to react. The senses are like the senses of a human being: sight, smell, taste, and hearing. I would also use proximity sensors which will help the robot to not run in to things such as the wall or a counter. There are 2 types of proximity sensors:

  • Near object detection, which means your robot can see objects up to a distance of about 10 feet away
  • Far object detection, which is when the robot can see beyond its primary field of vision

Additionally, there are seeing sensors, also referred to as light-dependent sensors. This type of sensor is dependent on light to function.

Lesson 40 of science

We are learning about batteries this week in science. Batteries are Electrochemical devices. The chemical energy in a battery is converted into electricity. Chemical reactions occur within a battery. Through these reactions, electricity is generated. Batteries can be classified into the following types:

  • Alkaline batteries which are very popular
  • Nickel-cadmium these are very good for things like robots because they have high capacity
  • Nickel metal hydride these have higher quality, no memory and very expensive
  • Lithium-ion which are laptop batteries, they have very good quality
  • Sealed lead-acid these provide a lot of current and are very good for large robots

Chemical reactions inside a battery produce voltage, which is the electric pressure produced by the reactions. About 1.5 volts would be the voltage of a small battery such as a double-A battery. You would need a battery with 15 volts to power a car.

      Batteries can deliver a certain amount of current based on their capacity. 100 amps x 5 equals 5 hours of amps for twenty hours, so 100 amps x 5 = 100 amps for twenty hours

Lesson 35 of science

This week’s science lesson introduced us to the concept of a robot. In order to be true robots, they must be able to function autonomously, without human operators. The science of robotics consists of designing and building such machines. Making a robot does not require genius. You just need creativity, diligence, curiosity, and patience. Making robots can be fun and can give you cool job opportunities while experimenting with technology.

Lesson 30 of science

Amateur radio (ham radio) was the topic of this week’s lesson. Ham radio is noncommercial radio communication. Radio waves are used to communicate between two people. The use of ham radios for training is sometimes needed to learn how to use a radio or electronics. Experiments can also be conducted using the radios. They can also be used as recreational instruments.

Among the communication methods available are voice, text, and image. There is no limit to what you can communicate within the city or to outer space using ham radio. It is good to have a communication system whose operation does not depend on electricity if your grid fails. 

Lesson 25 of science

Whenever you speak into a radio, the audio waves that come from your mouth are converted into electric current. The carrier wave then becomes modulated. This modulated carrier wave can then be amplified depending on the reserve. As a result of the antenna signal, electrons oscillate back and forth, which produces magnetic and electric fields. When the frequency reaches a certain level, radio waves will be emitted. Once the receiving antenna catches the radio waves, then this signal will be demodulated. Basically, the AC current will be converted to a direct current, allowing us to hear the original audio.

Lesson 20 of science

   This week I learned about soldering. According to the American Heritage dictionary the definition of soldering is a , “fusible alloy used for joining or binding together metal surfaces or joints, as the edges of tin cans, jewelry, and kitchen utensils.”

The more wattage you have the more heat that is produced to unite the two pieces together. The  Screwdriver, spade, and conical tips are some of the more common tip shapes. The key is to get as much surface area contact between the tip and the work as possible. The Chisel and spade tips have larger surface areas at their ends then a conical tip.When it comes to preserving tip life, the number one thing you can do is lower the tip temperature, if your iron allows you to do so. After that, keep a layer of solder on the tip to prevent it from oxidizing, and clean it between uses. Oxides and charcoal flux majorly reduce the tips ability to heat the connection which is why it is very important to clean the tip. If you don’t clean the tip the oxides will become harder with time and heat and won’t work as well. 

Lesson 10 :Electronic Components and Theories

Electronic component control electrons in specific ways. Electronic components have two or more leads or terminals. Terminals Connect into a printed circuit board or a (PCB). The placement of the components is determined by the purpose of the circuit. Atoms are basically building blocks of matter. Adams (  atomos) means invisible. Atoms are made of subatomic particles.

  •  voltage means electrical pressure ( volts)  
  •  curtain means amount of electricity (amps)  
  •  resistance means resist current flow  (ohms

George Simon Ohm

ohm’s law

 George Simon Ohm is the originator of Ohm’s law. He was a German physicist and a mathematician. He also introduced Ohm’s law in 1827.

  •  amps X ohms = volts
  •  volts /  ohms =  amps
  •  Volts /  amps = Ohm
  •  volts X amps = Watts

Lesson 5 of Science 

This week I learned about communication, radios and how they each work. The smoke signal is a way that people used to communicate long ago. They would make fire and cover and uncover the smoke in patterns to communicate. Then, there was the pony express which was used from 1860-1861 it only lasted about 18 months. They would ride horses from St. Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California. They would stop every 10 miles at swing stations to change out their tired horse for a fresh one since they carried 20 lbs of mail and 20 lbs of protection they must weigh under 125 pounds because all of that weight is the limit that horses can carry. Electromagnetic radiation is energy charged and uncharged fields. Radio propagation is alternating the power of a current. A radio is a device that can control electrons. Two types of radios are catching radios which only catch radio waves. The other kind of radio is a 2 way radio which catches radio waves but also can give radio waves.