This week I had 2 projects. The first project was a self-watering potted plant. The second project is a water garden.
Things you have to consider with your soil is that your soil must contain organic matter to provide minerals for all of your plants.The pH level is very important for your plant’s, a good soil pH level is about 6-6.5.
A couple things to remember when composting is to always keep your compost pile moist during warmer months, and then flip the compost every once in-awhile.
Earth is made up of rocks and rocks are made from minerals. Those minerals are made up of elements. Some of these minerals have two or more elements but some minerals only have one.
Minerals must naturally occur; it has to be earth made to be a mineral. They are not real if a scientist makes it. Minerals are inorganic which means they are dead. Minerals are crystalline which means their atoms are formed together to make a 3D form. Minerals are solid which means they stay stable at room temperature. Many minerals have only two elements like salt .
Mining can be very dangerous like in 2010 lots of people got stuck in a mine but they all got out safely . There are three different mining methods: the first is underground mining.underground mining when they mine precious metals like gold ,silver and platinum. underground mining is very expensive so they have to get great value. Surface mining is the second major type of mining; it is less expensive and often base metals and minerals can be extracted from the surface. The third is placer mining often metals can be separated from sediment in rivers or streams .There is a tool called the slooce trap that saves valuable material and separates it from sediment .
This week we talked about wind. When air is moving vertically, it’s called an updraft. Air motion is caused by 3 forces. The first force is the pressure Granite Force also known as PGF. This is when high pressure areas force the air into low pressure areas. The second force is the Coriolis Force this is when the rotation of the Earth causes air to turn. In the Northern hemisphere hurricanes spin in one direction and in the southern hemisphere they spin in the opposite direction. And last but not least the third force is friction which slows the flow of wind.
This week we talked about the atmosphere. There are a few layers of the atmosphere and they are classified by the temperature. The lowest layer is the troposphere which is 10 miles high at the equator and 4 miles high at the poles. As temperature decreases the altitude increases. The second layer is the stratosphere. This layer begins 6-8 miles above sea level and ends 31-34 miles above sea level. Unlike the troposphere in the stratosphere as the temperature increases the altitude increases. Jet powered airplanes can fly here but not propeller powered. The third layer is the mesosphere. This layer starts 31 miles above sea level and ends 50-53 miles above sea level. The average temperature is -120 degrees .This level is too high for jet powered airplanes and is too low for satellites. The fourth layer is the thermosphere. This layer starts 50 miles above sea level and ends 312-620 miles above sea level.
This week is my last week doing conservation i will be starting meteorology
In this section of science I learned that only 2.5% of the earth’s water is freshwater. 70%of freshwater is groundwater and 1% is surface water.as fresh water demands increase, groundwater decreases. Pumping groundwater and severe droughts affect the aquifer water levels. Desalination is one process used for distillation. First you evaporate the water which leaves behind the salt and then you condensate it and collect it. Then we talked about irrigation, irrigation is the process of conserving water. Irrigation is the artificial supply to arid and semiarid regions. There are many types of irrigation like the drip irrigation system. Drip irrigation is when water goes through pipes and filters to get the sand out and then goes through different pipes that drip water constantly down at the plants roots
Pollution is the biggest threat to animal and human kind. When humans litter or poor oil into the water that can kill all different types of life from whales to cyanobacteria. Most people know that cyanobacteria is a small organism that lives in water that generates over 50% of our oxygen. Then if cyanobacteria dies then we don’t have enough oxygen so we’ll die . So I feel that if humans didn’t litter or pour oil into water there would be cleaner drinking water and less animals going extinct.
Instead of killing animals that look scary and intimidating to human life we should let them be animals meaning let them live in their habitat not in the zoo ,cages ,the circus or in houses. I get that we can have kittens and small dogs but not animals like tigers and lions and wolves or even reptiles. Those that do have indoor cats and dogs should let their dogs and cats go outside and come inside as they wish.
This week I learned about soil erosion signs and consequences. Some soil erosion signs are:
- Muddy rivers
- Rilles,channels and gullies
- Caved in slops and stream banks
Soil conversion is used to limit the amount of surface runoff.There are a lot of ways to conserve soil like contour plants. Contour planting is when farmers plow the land vertically along the hill instead of horizontally. Sometimes with contour planting you use bunding. Bunding is when you place rocks along the lines of the contour rows.
Types of soil conversion:
- Contour planting
- Buffer strips
- Strip cropping
- Cover crops, or vegetation
This week we talked about how water and soil interact. The water cycle is the movement of water around the earth .Water infiltration is when you have water soaking into the soil and eventually will flow through the soil to the water level.
erosion is when water or wind move soil and causes land slides. there are lots of different types of water erosions:
- sheet erosion
- rill erosion
- ephemeral erosion
- gully erosion
- stream-back erosion
This week we talked about soil. Soil is the crust of the earth layers. Soil is made from minerals and contains gases and liquids. organic soil contains the most minerals.Topsoil or surface soil contains the most nutrients because there is a lot of organic matter such as animal manure. The layer under the topsoil is the subsoil ,this layer contains clay and minerals. The Substratum layer is a mixture between soil and rock. Then the last layer is bedrock this layer contains lots of big rock and there isn’t any minerals in this layer.
This week we talked about preserve vs. conserve. Conservation means to manage the animals and plants. Preservation means to not take or hurt anything from animals and plants.
Personally, I am not biased towards either of them but, I feel strongly that we need both. On one hand I understand population control and on the other hand I also believe that animals shouldn’t be taken from their habitat.
This week we talked about harvesting and preserving. Plants have to be harvested differently by what type of plant they are. If your plant is a annual plant the you have to harvest the plant before it goes to seed. If you have a biannual you harvest roots before fall.anf lastly if you have a perennial you harvest roots at any time but the roots must be ready.
Mulching is important when growing a garden some mulching benefits are:
- Keeps soil warm in winter and cool in sun
- Attracts worms and other other beneficial insects
- Minimize soggy soil
- Keeps soil moist
- Limits the amount of weeds
Some bugs are good while others are harmful to plants. Chewing bugs are types of harmful bugs these are caterpillars,beetles,and grasshoppers. Some distortion bugs are thrips,aphids and gall mites